Full version Karl Marx

Karl Marx

This print version free essay Karl Marx.

Category: Philosophy

Autor: reviewessays 26 September 2010

Words: 1912 | Pages: 8

Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His

views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way

in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to

rise above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle

class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set

the basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people

think today, and because of him people are more open to suggestion and are

quicker to create ideas on political issues.

Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5th, 1818 in Trier. Although he had

three other siblings, all sisters, he was the favorite child to his father,

Heinrich. His mother, a Dutch Jewess named Henrietta Pressburg, had no

interest in Karl's intellectual side during his life. His father was a

Jewish lawyer, and before his death in 1838, converted his family to

Christianity to preserve his job with the Prussian state. When Heinrich's

mother died, he no longer felt he had an obligation to his religion, thus

helping him in the decision in turning to Christianity.

Karl's childhood was a happy and care-free one. His parents had a

good relationship and it help set Karl in the right direction." His В‘

splendid natural gifts' awakened in his father the hope that they would one

day be used in the service of humanity, whilst his mother declared him to

be a child of fortune in whose hands everything would go well. (The story

of his life, Mehring, page 2)

In High school Karl stood out among the crowd. When asked to write

a report on "How to choose a profession" he took a different approach. He

took the angle in which most interested him, by saying that there was no

way to choose a profession, but because of circumstances one is placed in

an occupation. A person with a aristocratic background is more likely to

have a higher role in society as opposed to someone from a much poorer

background.

While at Bonn at the age of eighteen he got engaged to Jenny von

Westphalen, daughter of the upperclassmen Ludwig von Westphalen. She was

the childhood friend of Marx's oldest sister, Sophie. The engagement was a

secret one, meaning they got engaged without asking permission of Jenny's

parents. Heinrich Marx was uneasy about this but before long the consent

was given.

Karl's school life other than his marks is unknown. He never spoke

of his friends as a youth, and no one has ever came to speak of him through

his life. He left high school in August of 1835 to go on to the University

of Bonn in the fall of the same year to study law. His father wanted him to

be a lawyer much like himself but when Karl's reckless university life was

getting in the way after a year Heinrich transferred him to Berlin. Also,

he did not go to most lectures, and showed little interest in what was to

be learned. Karl's reckless ways were not tolerated at Berlin, a more

conservative college without the mischievous ways of the other universities.

While at Berlin, Marx became part of the group known as the Yong

Hegelians. The group was organized in part due to the philosophy teacher

Hegel that taught from 1818 to his death. The teachings of Hegel shaped the

way the school thought towards most things. Those who studied Hegel and his

ideals were known as the Young Hegelians. Hegel spoke of the development

and evolution of the mind and of ideas. Although Karl was younger than most

in the group, he was recognized for his intellectual ability and became the

focus of the group. While at Berlin "He came to believe that all the

various sciences and philosophies were part of one overarching, which, when

completed, which would give a true and total picture of the universe and

man." (Communist Manifesto, Marx (Francis B. Randal), page 15) Marx was an

atheist, and believed that science and philosophy would prove everything.

Thus he had no belief in a god of any type. Marx believed that Hegel must

have been an atheist as well because of his strong belief in the mind.

Marx's doctoral thesis was competed in 1841. It carried the title

"The Difference Between the Philosophies of Nature of Democrtius and

Epicurus."(The Making of Marx's Critical Theory, Oakley, page 11) It had to

do with the Greek philosopher Epicurus and how his beliefs related to

Marxs' of that day. This thesis was an early indication of the thinking

behind Karl Marx. Much of his later work and ideas are evident in this

essay.

He passed his thesis into the University of Jena because Bonn and

Berlin required an oral part to the thesis. The quickness was also a matter

in this. He passed it in early April, and got his degree in history and

philosophy in April 15, 1841.

After graduation he was unable to find work. This caused him to

take a job with the German newspaper Rheinische Zeitung in early 1842. By

the end of the year, Marx made editor- in-chief. A few months after that in

1843 because of his radical writings, and his social views, Marx was forced

to step down as editor, and soon after that the paper closed altogether.

He married Jenny von Westphalen, and with a member of the Young

Hegelians, Arnold Ruge went to Paris to publish a radical journal on his

beliefs. It was evident in his works that he was a revolutionary that

advocated criticism of everything in existence. This was especially

anticipated by the proletariat. The proletariat were the working class of

the day. They were the poor and made up the majority of people. Marx went

on to believe that the proletariat would rise up against the bourgeoisie.

Then in 1844 Marx met a man that would change his life forever.

When going to England after doing military service, he meet Marx in Cologne

in the offices of the Rheinische Zeitung. Both of them had gone through the

German philosophic school and whilst abroad they came to the same

conclusions but while Marx arrived at an understanding of the struggles and

the demands of the age basis of the French Revolution, Engles did so on the

basis of English industry. (The Story of His life, Mehring, page 93)

Friedrich Engles was born in 1820 in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of

Prussia. Like Marx he was brought up with the German philosophies of Hegel,

and like Marx, Engles began to follow the works of Hegel. These parallels

between Marx and Engles formed a relationship that would last for the rest

of each others lives. They both contributed to each others works, and co-

wrote many things. The similarity in background between the two also meant

a similarity in ideas. The both believed in the struggle of the proletariat

and that it would rise up against the bourgeoisie. Marx is considerate to

be the greater of the two philosophies. The one contrast was the way in

which one solved problems. Marx would use historical research to solve a

problem, as apposed Engles who used his imagination and pure mind to come

about a solution. These differences in culture and similarities in beliefs

complemented each other well. This outlook on society and the class war was

ingenious. It was their greatest work together, the communist manifesto,

which achieved them their most popularity among the proletariat, and

created the most problems with the government for the two.

Communist Manifesto or Manifest der Kommunistischen Partel was a

book written by Marx with collaboration from Engles. Basically meaning that

Marx wrote it but he discussed the issues in the manifesto with Engles. It

documents the objectives and principals of the Communist League, an

organization of artist and intellectuals. It was published in London in

1848, shortly before the revolution in Paris. The manifesto is divided into

four parts, and the beginning of the entire document reads "A specter is

haunting Europe"

The first part outlines his ideas on history and a prediction on

what is yet to come. He predicts a confrontation between the proletariat

and the bourgeoisie, the working class and the higher class. Because of the

main logic behind capitalism the bourgeoisie will seek more power and more

wealth. With them doing this, the living conditions of the proletariat will

decrease. Numbers of proletariat will increase as well as their political

awareness, and will revolt against the bourgeoisie and will eventually win.

In the second part Marx discusses the importance of Communism, and

if private property is abolished, class distinctions will be as well. The

second part also stresses the importance of the necessity of the

proletariat and bourgeoisie being common and the level of class being the

same.

The third part critiques other social ideas of the modern day. The

final and fourth part discussed the differences between his political

issues as apposed to those of the other oppositonal parties. This part ends

in bold capital letters "WORKINGMEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!"

The days of November 1850 fall almost exactly in the middle of

Marx's life and they represent, not only externally, an important turning

point in his life's work. Marx himself was keenly aware of this and Engles

perhaps even more so. (The Story of his life, Mehring, page 208) Living in

political exile his life changed. His ideas were no longer followed like

they once were. His isolation from the general public provided a new light

in his life.

Then, in 1855, his only son died. His son showed much potential,

and was the life of the family. When he died, Jenny became very sick with

anxiety, and Marx himself became very depressed. He wrote to Engles "The

house seems empty and deserted since the boy died. He was its life and soul.

It is impossible to describe how much we miss him all of the time. I have

suffered all sorts of misfortunes but now I know what real misfortune

is...." (The Story of his Life, Mehring, page 247)

After the Communist League disbanded in 1852 Marx tried to create

another organization much like it. Then, in 1862 the First International

was established in London. Marx was the leader. He made the inaugural

speech and governed the work of the governing body of the International.

When the International declined, Marx recommended moving it to the United

States. The ending of the International in 1878 took much out of Marx, and

made him withdraw from his work; much like the ending of the Communist

League had done. This time, it was for good.

The last ten years of his life is known as "a slow death". This is

because the last eight years many medical problems affected his life. In

the autumn of 1873 he was inflected by apoplexy which effected his brain

which made him incapable of work and any desire to write. After weeks of

treatment in Manchester, he recovered fully. He controlled the demise of

his health. Instead of relaxing in his old age he went back to work on his

own studies. His late nights and early mornings decreased his health in the

last few years of his life. In January of 1883, after the death of his

daughter Jenny, he suffered from Bronchitis and made it almost impossible

to swallow. The next month a tumor developed in his lung and soon

manifested into his death on March 14, 1883.

Although Marx's influence was not great during his life, after his

death his works grew with the strength of the working class. His ideas and

theories became known as Marxism, and has been used to shape the ideas of

most European and Asian countries. The strength of the Proletariat has been

due to the work of Marx. His ideals formed government known as Communism.

Although he was never a rich man, his knowledge has been rich in importance

for the struggle of the working class.

Works Cited

Himelfarb, Alexander and C. James Richardson. Sociology for Canadians:

Images of society. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryderson Limited, 1991

Mehring, F, Karl Marx, The story of his life, London: Butler and Tanner

ltd., 1936

Marx, K, The Communist Manifesto, Germany: J. E. Burghard, 1848

"Karl Marx." Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia. Cd-Rom. Microsoft Corp.,

1993-1995

Vesaey, G. and P. Foulkes. Collins dictionary of Philosophy. London:British

Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, 1990