Full version Questions About The Egan Theory

Questions About The Egan Theory

This print version free essay Questions About The Egan Theory.

Category: Psychology

Autor: reviewessays 23 November 2010

Words: 916 | Pages: 4

10. Egan has a bias toward "client action" in his model. What does this

mean? (292-293)

Although clients set goals that are directly related to their problem

situations, there are also metagoals or superoridnate goals that would make

them more effective in pursuing the goals they set and in leading fuller

lives. The overall goal of helping clients become more effective in problem

management and opportunity development is important. Another metagoal is to

help clients become more effective "agents" in life - doers rather than mere

reactors, preventers rather than fixers, initiators rather than followers.

The doer is more likely to pursue stretch goals rather than adaptive goals

in managing problems. The doer is also more likely to move beyond problem

management to opportunity development.

11. At what stage does the concept of "commitment" become highly

relevant in Egan's model? (29-30)

Stage II is critical for client commitment, as it is the when determining

outcomes occurs. In particular, Step II-C, the third step of Stage II is

when it's important to help clients find the incentives that will help them

commit themselves to their change agendas. Without strong commitment,

change agendas end up as no more than nice ideas. For reference, Step II-A

is to help clients use their imaginations to spell out possibilities for a

better future. Step II-B is to help clients choose realistic and

challenging goals that are real solutions to the key problems and unexplored

opportunities identified in Stage I.

12. What does the phrase "the relationship as working alliance" mean in

terms of Egan's model? (43-44)

Bordin defines the working alliance as the collaboration between the client

and the helper based on their agreement on the goals and tasks of

counseling. In the context of the problem-management and

opportunity-development process, the working alliance outlined is 1) the

collaborative nature of helping - both parties have responsibilities to

outcomes, which depend on the competence and motivation of both, plus the

quality of their interactions. 2) the relationship is a forum for relearning

- relearning occurs when helpers model attitudes and behaviors that

challenge clients to change. 3) relationship flexibility - effective

helpers must be able to adapt to clients and use a mix of styles, skills and

techniques that are tailored to the kind of relationship that is right for

each client.

13. What does the attitude of "nonpatronizing empowerment" have to do

with Egan's helping model? (55-57)

Helpers should not self-righteously "empower" clients, as that would be

patronizing and condescending. Effective counselors help clients discover,

develop and use the untapped power within themselves in the following ways:

1) start with the premise that clients can change if they choose 2) share

the helping process with clients 3) help clients see counseling sessions as

work sessions 3) become a consultant to clients 4) accept helping as a

natural, two-way influence process 5) focus on learning instead of helping

6) do not see clients as overly fragile.

14. What does "respect as the foundation value" mean in Egan's model?

Specify some of the elements of respect. (46-47)

Respect for clients is the foundation on which all helping interventions are

built. It's not easy to define, but cannot remain just an attitude or way

of viewing others. Norms that flow from the interaction between a belief in

the dignity of the person and the value of respect include: 1) do no harm 2)

be competent and committed 3) make it clear that you are "for" the client 4)

assume the client's goodwill 5) do not rush to judgment 6) keep the client's

agenda in focus

15. What are at least three (3) characteristics of genuineness as a

professional value? (53-54)

1) Not overemphasizing the helping role - genuine helpers do not take

refuge in the role of the counselor. They should learn how to do many

different things to remain "role free" and avoid being patronizing and


2) Being spontaneous - effective helpers, while being tactful as part

of their respect for others, do not constantly weigh what they say to

clients, but also does not mean verbalizing every thought to clients.

3) Avoid defensiveness - genuine helpers are nondefensive. They know

their own strengths and deficits and are presumably trying to live mature,

meaningful lives.

4) Be open - genuine helpers are capable of deeper levels of

self-disclosure even within the helping relationship. They do not see

self-disclosure as an end in itself, but feel free to reveal themselves when

it's appropriate.

16. What is the distinction between client "story-telling" and clients

"telling their stories?"

Story-telling is a recitation of facts about an event or situation, without

emotion or personal feeling. Clients "telling their stories" refers to an

account from a personal perspective that includes any emotion, behaviors and

attitudes associated with that event or situation.

17. What is the role of "positive psychology" in Egan's revised helping

model? (6)

Helping clients identify and develop unused potential and missed

opportunities may be the role of "positive psychology." Too much attention

is focused on pathology, weakness and damage and not enough on strength,

wisdom and virtue.

18. Why are the various basic and advanced communication skills so

important in Egan's model? (66)

Basic communication skills (attending, active listening, empathy, probing

and summarizing) are critical building blocks for effective dialogue. The

advanced communication skills (challenging, empathic highlighting,

self-disclosure, immediacy, confrontation, etc.) are needed challenge

clients or help them challenge themselves. These skills serve every stage

and stop of the healing process.

19. What are the three dimensions of responding skills identified by

Egan? (95-96)

1) Perceptiveness - responding skills are only as good as the accuracy

of the perceptions on which you base them

2) Know-how - once it is known what kind of response is called for, one

must be able to deliver it. It's critical to be able to translate

perceptions and understanding into words.

3) Assertiveness - accurate perceptions and excellent know-how are

meaningless until they become part of therapeutic dialogue.