Questions About The Egan TheoryThis print version free essay Questions About The Egan Theory.
Autor: reviewessays 23 November 2010
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10. Egan has a bias toward "client action" in his model. What does this
Although clients set goals that are directly related to their problem
situations, there are also metagoals or superoridnate goals that would make
them more effective in pursuing the goals they set and in leading fuller
lives. The overall goal of helping clients become more effective in problem
management and opportunity development is important. Another metagoal is to
help clients become more effective "agents" in life - doers rather than mere
reactors, preventers rather than fixers, initiators rather than followers.
The doer is more likely to pursue stretch goals rather than adaptive goals
in managing problems. The doer is also more likely to move beyond problem
management to opportunity development.
11. At what stage does the concept of "commitment" become highly
relevant in Egan's model? (29-30)
Stage II is critical for client commitment, as it is the when determining
outcomes occurs. In particular, Step II-C, the third step of Stage II is
when it's important to help clients find the incentives that will help them
commit themselves to their change agendas. Without strong commitment,
change agendas end up as no more than nice ideas. For reference, Step II-A
is to help clients use their imaginations to spell out possibilities for a
better future. Step II-B is to help clients choose realistic and
challenging goals that are real solutions to the key problems and unexplored
opportunities identified in Stage I.
12. What does the phrase "the relationship as working alliance" mean in
terms of Egan's model? (43-44)
Bordin defines the working alliance as the collaboration between the client
and the helper based on their agreement on the goals and tasks of
counseling. In the context of the problem-management and
opportunity-development process, the working alliance outlined is 1) the
collaborative nature of helping - both parties have responsibilities to
outcomes, which depend on the competence and motivation of both, plus the
quality of their interactions. 2) the relationship is a forum for relearning
- relearning occurs when helpers model attitudes and behaviors that
challenge clients to change. 3) relationship flexibility - effective
helpers must be able to adapt to clients and use a mix of styles, skills and
techniques that are tailored to the kind of relationship that is right for
13. What does the attitude of "nonpatronizing empowerment" have to do
with Egan's helping model? (55-57)
Helpers should not self-righteously "empower" clients, as that would be
patronizing and condescending. Effective counselors help clients discover,
develop and use the untapped power within themselves in the following ways:
1) start with the premise that clients can change if they choose 2) share
the helping process with clients 3) help clients see counseling sessions as
work sessions 3) become a consultant to clients 4) accept helping as a
natural, two-way influence process 5) focus on learning instead of helping
6) do not see clients as overly fragile.
14. What does "respect as the foundation value" mean in Egan's model?
Specify some of the elements of respect. (46-47)
Respect for clients is the foundation on which all helping interventions are
built. It's not easy to define, but cannot remain just an attitude or way
of viewing others. Norms that flow from the interaction between a belief in
the dignity of the person and the value of respect include: 1) do no harm 2)
be competent and committed 3) make it clear that you are "for" the client 4)
assume the client's goodwill 5) do not rush to judgment 6) keep the client's
agenda in focus
15. What are at least three (3) characteristics of genuineness as a
professional value? (53-54)
1) Not overemphasizing the helping role - genuine helpers do not take
refuge in the role of the counselor. They should learn how to do many
different things to remain "role free" and avoid being patronizing and
2) Being spontaneous - effective helpers, while being tactful as part
of their respect for others, do not constantly weigh what they say to
clients, but also does not mean verbalizing every thought to clients.
3) Avoid defensiveness - genuine helpers are nondefensive. They know
their own strengths and deficits and are presumably trying to live mature,
4) Be open - genuine helpers are capable of deeper levels of
self-disclosure even within the helping relationship. They do not see
self-disclosure as an end in itself, but feel free to reveal themselves when
16. What is the distinction between client "story-telling" and clients
"telling their stories?"
Story-telling is a recitation of facts about an event or situation, without
emotion or personal feeling. Clients "telling their stories" refers to an
account from a personal perspective that includes any emotion, behaviors and
attitudes associated with that event or situation.
17. What is the role of "positive psychology" in Egan's revised helping
Helping clients identify and develop unused potential and missed
opportunities may be the role of "positive psychology." Too much attention
is focused on pathology, weakness and damage and not enough on strength,
wisdom and virtue.
18. Why are the various basic and advanced communication skills so
important in Egan's model? (66)
Basic communication skills (attending, active listening, empathy, probing
and summarizing) are critical building blocks for effective dialogue. The
advanced communication skills (challenging, empathic highlighting,
self-disclosure, immediacy, confrontation, etc.) are needed challenge
clients or help them challenge themselves. These skills serve every stage
and stop of the healing process.
19. What are the three dimensions of responding skills identified by
1) Perceptiveness - responding skills are only as good as the accuracy
of the perceptions on which you base them
2) Know-how - once it is known what kind of response is called for, one
must be able to deliver it. It's critical to be able to translate
perceptions and understanding into words.
3) Assertiveness - accurate perceptions and excellent know-how are
meaningless until they become part of therapeutic dialogue.