&Quot;The Incompetence Of Leaders Led To The Outbreak Of Revolution&Quot;This print version free essay &Quot;The Incompetence Of Leaders Led To The Outbreak Of Revolution&Quot;.
Category: History Other
Autor: reviewessays 03 March 2011
Words: 2105 | Pages: 9
The incompetence of leaders is a pre-requisite in the outbreak of revolution. This can be seen clearly in both Russia in October 1917 under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky's Provisional Government and China in 1949 under the leadership of Chaing Kai Shek's Guo Ming Dang. As a result of this incompetence both the countries experienced the outbreak of revolution. Although the incompetence of the leaders leads to the outbreak of revolution it is not the sole issue. The outbreak of revolution in Russia was Lenin and the Bolshevik party seizing power by means of a coup de-tat from the provisional government of Kerensky in October 1917. In China the Chinese Communist Party seized power in their revolution in 1949, after a civil war with the Guo Min Dang under the incompetent rule of Chiang Kai Shek. In both countries the incompetence of the leaders, the Provisional Government and the GMD, both created discontent amongst the masses, failing to fulfil their roles to both the people and the country. The Incompetence of the leaders was vital to the outbreak of revolution however other factors such as wars, both civil and international, and reform escalated the growing discontent amongst the masses and support for Revolutionaries growing.
The incompetence of the government's leadership was a key factor in the outbreak of both revolutions. After the fall of the Tsar, Russia installed a Provisional government, whose only real policy was to maintain status quo until elections could be held. This idea proved inadequate to satisfy the discontents population want for change. The Provisional Government lead by Alexander Kerensky was unable to maintain law and order in Russia due to incompetence of leadership and realization of what the peasants wanted, "Bread, Peace and Land." His Incompetent decision to continue with the war effort proved a vital factor in increasing discontent for his government and his launching of a new offensive under his name, only worsened the situation. The Keresnky offensive as it was labelled failed miserably, soldiers deserted in droves, returning home on vigilante missions to take land for themselves. Kerensky and the Provisional Government issued warnings and threats but were powerless to stop the peasants in the countryside redistributing land. Perhaps one of the most incompetent decisions Alexander Kerensky made was allowing basic civil liberties such as freedom of the press, the abolition of ethnic, religious discrimination and set free all political prisoners. In allowing this to happen Alexander freed his opposition from his grasp and allowed them to once again begin to spread the work of revolution. This eventually led to Kornilov affair, in which Kerensky was supported by the Bolsheviks then outsmarted by Lenin and the Bolsheviks and ultimately lost power of the government due to the outbreak of revolution. Similarly in China the GMD under the leadership of Chiang Kai Shek were a militaristic government that claimed to act in the national interest. However the true nationalist intentions of the party were often corrupt. The GMD was seen to be a western influenced right wing political party whose intentions for china were to establish a democracy, but in reality they were heavily corrupt, serving the interest of only themselves and the nobility of China. Chiang Kai Shek was a strong leader who used violence and intimidation to scare his people into following him, however the people had lost a lot of respect for his regime. Chiang Kai Shek s failure to suppress the invading Japanese only added to the growing discontent for the leader and allowed the CCP to gain mass support. Chiang also taxed the people heavily and forced the peasants to have very low standards of living, Chiang Kai Shek also drained the lifeblood of his rural country with forced conscription. A good example of Chiang Kai Sheks incompetence was allowing "The Four Families" who were wealthy and influential families related to Chiang, to amass great wealth through government protected monopolies, exploiting the population. All of these incompetent decisions by Chiang Kai Shek lead to the outbreak of revolution. Similarities between the two leaders Kerensky in Russia and Chiang in China are clearly visible, both failed to establish reform, which meant that the leaders lost support from the majority of their populations the peasantries, and both failed to conclude wars. Differences arise from Kerensky having no political policies except to maintain the status quo, whereas Chiang was meant to govern his country based on democracy. Both Kerensky and Chiang's incompetent leadership was responsible for the outbreak of revolution.
Wars are often factors that associate themselves with the support for revolutionary movements growing. If a war takes place wether it is civil or international the countries involved all criticize their governments for their participation especially if the war creates discontent amongst society. With this criticism of the government happening bad decision-making and incompetent leadership becomes clear. However war can be seen in the context of incompetence of leadership, though the outbreak of war is significant enough to warrant individual responsibility in the outbreak of revolution. This is shown in Russia with involvement in WW1 and China in involvement in both the civil war GMD vs. CCP and WW2. In Russia the war effort by the Provisional government can summarised solely as the Kerensky offensive. Russia was unable to match Germany's superior armaments, however Russia's army was much larger than Germanys, although Russia had the man power, Russia itself was not prepared for war as Germany was and suffered large loses during the offensive. The offensive proved a disaster and was deemed a waste of resources and manpower. With the failure of the offensive came mass desertion in the army, which was crippling, draining not only the home front but also the whole war effort to the point of an attempted coup by General Kornilov. With the loss of support from the army the Provisional government and Alexander Kerensky had really started to lose control over Russia and because the offensive was in his name (the Kerensky offensive) the failure of it reflected directly on Kerensky's incompetence as a leader. Similarly war in China had been a problem since the fall of the dynastic rule, using up all of the countries resources and manpower. The civil war between the GMD and CCP separated the country. With this separation the GMD, under Chiang, striped resources from the peasants and the CCP aided the peasants with problems such as land reform. As the civil war raged on for many years the CCP started to gain popular support from the peasants as they were advocating change (land reform for instance) and were addressing the problems Ð’â€˜the people' faced. With the civil war on the back burner the two enemies allied together to fight a invading force. The Japanese invasion added to the already growing discontent for the GMD and the increasing support of the CCP. One reason for this was the Scorched earth policy, which was put in place by the GMD to slow the Japanese. The idea was to burn any crops that the GMD would surrender in retreat so that the Japanese couldn't use them for their war effort. In contrast the CCP using guerrilla tactics fought the Japanese while also still helping out with land reform. The ineffectiveness of the GMD in fighting the Japanese and the CCP's success against the Japanese inturn lead to the CCP gaining mass support of the populace, the 80% peasantry, as they were seen as true nationalists. In terms of winning over the population the CCP had secured their victory even before the invasion of the Japanese, but the invasion did help the CCP gain even more support from the peasantry. Both the civil war and the Japanese invasion helped solidify the CCP's support but it was achieved at massive costs of human life estimates are close to 30 million the majority being the peasant class. A parallel can be drawn in the way that the war impacted on the majority (peasant class) of the population and that the wars exaggerated the problems within the country that were caused by incompetent leadership. Differences between China and Russia in this situation are not so easily found because in both situations the wars exaggerated the problems within the country that existed due to incompetent leadership, although war is a external factor, it provided revolutionaries with the appropriate breeding ground for their growth, expansion and increasing support.
The role of revolutionaries was a factor in the outbreak of revolution. The incompetence of the leaders in their respected countries aloud this to occur. In Russia Lenin and the Bolsheviks were communists who capitalised on the weakness of Kerensky and his provisional government. The Bolsheviks utilised the growing influence of the Proletariat, and seized power in October 1917. Lenin and the Bolsheviks used the slogan "Bread, Peace, Land and power to the Soviets" to gain support from the populace, whose needs were not being met due to the incompetency of Kerensky. The slogan "Bread, Peace, Land and power to the Soviets" was used to address the most important issues facing the people, and due to this the Bolsheviks received widespread support, especially among the peasant class in society. Leninism (the Bolshevik for of Communism) promoted the industrialization and modernization of the country. The incompetent leadership of Kerensky meant that he had a loose hold on the army and when Kornilov began advancing on the capital the Provisional Government had no way of stopping them, so they had to turn to the Bolsheviks to eradicate the threat to power. The Bolsheviks mustered 20000 men, and stopped the coup however in doing this the Provisional Government was now propped up by the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolsheviks who was their only real opposition to power. Similarity in china Mao and the CCP were inspired by the success of the Bolsheviks. The CCP like the Bolsheviks addressed the concerns of the peasantry. Another factor that added to the CCP gaining support was their total opposition to traditional values that were still being practiced from the dynastic rulers, for example, Confucianism and the traditional family system. The CCP's extension of equal rights to young people and women also increased their support base. Perhaps also the other reason for the CCP increasing in support was because they were the only workable alternative. Chiang Kei Sheks government acting under his incompetent leadership was unable to unite China; problems that arose from this were both political and economic. Under Chiangs leadership inflation was quite high which reflected the GMD as incompetent in sustaining economic policies to control china. Politically there was no strong liberal democratic force. Too most Chinese's the CCP were the best alternative to the GMD. In both China and Russia parallels can be drawn in how these revolutionary groups both promoted a communist idea that would help solve their problems. Both the Bolsheviks and the CCP utilized the incompetent leadership in their governments and used it to the gain by gaining support from the population, which inturn lead to the Russian October Revolution of 1917 and the 1949 Chinese Revolution. The real contrast between the two was their visions of a communist country. Lenin had a vision that foresaw a proletariat based and driven industrialization and modernization for Russia. Mao foresaw a peasant based and driven vision promoting the interests of the peasantry. The role of revolutionary groups played a significant role in both revolutions were able to display the weaknesses of the incompetent leaders in power, expressed solutions to the problems their countries faced and were themselves a factor t in the incompetence of leaders in power.
A revolution needs a breeding ground to initiate itself in. Both China and Russia were perfect breeding grounds for revolutionaries to gain support and launch their revolutions. Revolutionary's need many factors, both long and short term to create their revolution. Russia under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky and China under Chiang Kai Shek are good examples of countries that due to the incompetence of their leaders created breeding grounds for revolutionaries by generating widespread discontent. This discontent arose due to the Governments loss of support from the masses from failing to fulfil their duties as a government, failing to act in the interest of their people and continuing/creating wars that magnified the problem of their failure to effect reform and address key issues. This in turn gave revolutionaries a chance to increase their support based on change and their solutions to the problems the government failed to answer or created. Incompetent leadership ultimately lead to the increase in support for change (revolutionary movements) and the outbreak of revolution.