Stop Being So Full Of Yourself: Narcissistic Personality DisorderThis print version free essay Stop Being So Full Of Yourself: Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
Autor: reviewessays 06 February 2011
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Stop being so full of yourself:
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A young handsome man, who views his female suitors as unworthy of his beauty is condemned by the gods to never find true love. One day he saw his reflection in a pool, and he stares at himself lovingly for so long eventually he simply withers away and dies. This is the story of Narcissus in Greek mythology for which Narcissistic Personality Disorders is named for. NPD is a serious life consuming disease that is characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance. Though many people seem to have NPD it is only defined as disorder if it interferes with oneÐ²Ð‚â„¢s life. In this paper I will discuss the symptoms, onset, the theories, and treatments.
People with Narcissistic Personality Disorder must have other people continually reassure their self image because they cannot create one for themselves. It is defined as, in Essential of Abnormal Psychology 4th ed., Ð²Ð‚ÑšA Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic) personality disorder involving a pervasive pattern of grandiosity in fantasy or behavior; need for admiration, and lack of empathy. Ð²Ð‚Ñš According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition you must have five of these nine symptoms
Ð²Ð‚Ñš(1) has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
(2) is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
(3) believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
(4) requires excessive admiration
(5) has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
(6) is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
(7) lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
(8) is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
(9) shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ NPD patients have often seen as cocky and self absorbed, when spoken to they constantly turn the conversation back on themselves. Alexander Lowen (1984) describes narcissistic personality disorder, as "the denial of the true self." When they feel they are not receiving the special treatment they deserve they will often become angry and lash out at others. They do not respond well to criticism and do not like to be around successful people because they are jealous. When Narissicit people are in imamate relationship they partner is most often verbally abuse and in some extreme physical abused because they cannot and do not live up to the standards of the Narcissistic person. This will also happen in children of Narcissistic people. Patients with NPD insist on being viewed the way they want to and grow upset with other people do not agree with them. They often have such high expiations of themselves, they cannot meet, they are depressed but they will hide this from this rest of the world. People with NPD are generally vulnerable and have very low self-esteem but they would never admit this to anyone or themselves. Some people with NPD with draw from society and put on a faÐ“Â§ade of modesty and humiliation so they can avoid situations that could lead to criticism.
According to Internet Mental Health Ð²Ð‚ÑšLess than 1 percent of the general population has the disorder and some studies indicate that is more dominated in males up to 75 percent. It is seen in two to sixteen percent of clinical outpatients.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Narcissism is generally seen in adolselance or primary narcissism, as a healthy part of development, but most teenagers will grow out of it when it is carried into adulthood or secondary narcissism it is then consider a disorder. Many specialists believe that people with NPD fear growing up because they will lose their youthful superiority. Each person with NPD are different they share similar core issues but it is manifest in each person differently. According to BehaveNet.com Ð²Ð‚ÑšResearchers have identified childhood developmental factors and parenting behaviors that may contribute to the disorder: An oversensitive temperament at birth. Overindulgence and overvaluation by parents. Valued by parents as a means to regulate their own self-esteem. Excessive admiration that is never balanced with realistic feedback. Unpredictable or unreliable care giving from parentÐ²Ð‚â„¢s .Severe emotional abuse in childhood. Being praised for perceived exceptional looks or talents by adults. Learning manipulative behaviors from parents.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ
Theories about NPD go back to Sigmund Freud's pioneering work On Narcissism, published in1914. In this essay, Freud (1914) introduced a distinction between Ð²Ð‚Ñšprimary and secondary narcissismÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. Freud thought that all babies pass through a phase of primary narcissism, in which they assume they are the center of their universe. This phase ends when the child is forced by the realities of life to recognize that it does not control its parents but is in fact entirely dependent on them. Under normal conditions, the baby gives up its fantasy of being all-powerful and becomes emotionally attached to its parents rather than itself. What Freud defined as secondary narcissism is a pathological condition in which the infant does not invest its emotions in its parents but rather redirects them back to itself. He thought that secondary narcissism developed in what he termed the pre-Oedipal phase of childhood; that is, before the age of three. From a Freudian perspective, then, narcissistic disorders originate in very early childhood development, and this early origin is thought to explain why they are so difficult to treat in later life. Most researchers agree that there are two types of narcissism but most believe primary narcissism starts in adolescence.
The treatment for Narcissistic Personality Disorder is long and drawn out. The therapists must first diagnoses the disorder then evaluate how it manifests itself. One on One psychotherapy is the most often used to treat the therapy but group or family therapy may be involved. Most people with the disorder are unwilling to be helped because they are generally forced to go by family or employers. When there they often are seeking help with the assiated symptoms like depression or anxiety and refuse to see the underlining cause.
They generally do not respond well with therapist questions or comments. They try to get the therapist to enforce their inflated sense of importance and image. When then questioned about the reality of such self images they then become defensive and will many times stop coming to therapy. At first the therapist goal is to help the individual with the symptoms and then later on help create a realist image of the self and to focus on the feeling of other people. Medication is only used to treat related symptoms like anxiety or depression. There are many disagreements as to the treatment some researchers say it is a learned behavior while other say it is a character disorder. There is only very small amount of research and development in the study of NPD.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a sense of being the best not based on reality. In young adulthood it is consider normal to be a bit narcissistic but not into adulthood. The treatment is limited and uncertain to work. It is life consuming and at many times an isolating disease because the narcissist lack all forms of empathy and only care for themselves.
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