Full version Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra

This print version free essay Toyota Supra.

Category: Technology

Autor: reviewessays 06 December 2010

Words: 5089 | Pages: 21

The Toyota Supra is a sports car produced by Toyota Motor Company starting in 1979. The styling of the Toyota Celica Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica. Starting in 1986.5 the Supra (in its third generation, MKIII) became it's own platform and was no longer based on the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and just started calling it Supra. [1]

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an Inline 6-cylinder engine (aka straight six).

The name is a combination of Celica and the word Supra. "Celica" is derived from Latin and its literal translation is "celestial" or "from the heavens". "Supra" is a word that is derived from latin that stands for "over, above, beyond, or greater than". So a translation to english would be something like "from above the heavens" for the entire term.

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo of sorts. It is derived from the original Celica logo (it's just orange instead of blue). Often people think it is some sort of swan, but it more closely resembles a dragon. The logo was on Supra's up until 1989 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo.

As of 1999 Toyota has ceased production of the Toyota Supra in the United States [1] and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Toyota Supra in Japan.

Toyota Celica Supra Mark I (1979-1981)

Mark I

Also called: MK I

Production: 1979-1981

Platform: MA4x

Engine: 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-EU I6

2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU I6

2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6

Transmission: 5-speed W50 Manual

4-speed A40D Automatic

4-speed A43D Automatic

Wheelbase: 103.5 in (2628.9 mm)

Length: 181.7 in (4615.2 mm)

Width: 65.0 in (1651.0 mm)

Height: 50.8 in (1290.3 mm)

Curb weight: ~2800 lb (1270.1 kg)

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 in (129.5 mm). The doors and rear section stayed the same length as Celica but rear panels differed. The most important change was the swap to an Inline-6 instead of the stock Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z.

1979

In 1978 Toyota began production of the Mark I Supra in Japan. The year it debuted in the United States and Japan was in 1979. The USA Mark I (chassis code MA46) was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.6 L (2563 cc) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E). Simultaneously in 1979, the Japanese Mark I (chassis code MA45) was offered with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU). Both were the first toyota engines equipped with electronic fuel injection.[1] [2]

Drivetrain options for the Mark I are either a 5-speed manual (W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph. The drivetrain for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar.

On the inside of the Supra you had an option of power windows and power locks as part of the Convenience Package. With the Convenience Package you also received Cruise Control and special door trim with door pull straps. Sunroof was an option that could be added too. As for standard features, in the center console there was an extendable map light and a fliptop armrest that provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the front seat backs, and tonneau cover under the liftback. The dash contained a state-of-the-art (at the time) AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel.

1980

In 1980, the Japanese Mark I (also branded with the MA46 chassis code) was offered with a 145 hp (108 kW) 2.0 L (1988 cc) 12-valve SOHC Turbocharged inline-6 engine (M-TEU). The engine was equipped with a Garrett T03 Turbo, but was not intercooled. This engine marks history as the first Toyota Engine to receive the technology of a turbocharger. [2]

The changes for the 1980 US version were different, and mostly cosmetic. The interior got a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock. On the exterior are redesigned side view mirrors, the 14x5.5 aluminum rims, which were optional in 1979, are now standard (the 1979s had steel rims with plastic wheel covers standard). In addition body molded mudflaps become available. On the copper metallic and white cars the flaps were painted the body color while on all other colors the flaps were left black. On the rear of the flaps, painted in white lettering, was the word "Celica". [3]

The official Toyota Supra Site also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control.

1981

In the coming 1981 year, the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E engine. It is still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but makes 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The cars automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission they dubbed a new chassis code of MA47.

Also in 1981 a new Sports Performance Package was an option that included sport suspension, raised white letter tires, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that the 8-track was offered in any Supras. [1] [3]

Quick Info

Mark I Quick information by Chassis code Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market

MA45 1979 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-EU I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) 5-speed W50 Manual

4-speed A40D Automatic JPN

MA46 2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) USA

1980 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 ft·lbf (211 N·m) JPN

2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) USA

MA47 1981 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) 5-speed W50 Manual

4-speed A43D Automatic JPN USA

Toyota Celica Supra Mark II (1982-1986)

See also: Toyota Celica XX

Mark II

Also called: MK II

Production: 1982-1986

Platform: MA6x GA6x

Engine: 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU I6

2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TE I6

2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6

2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GEU I6

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6

Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DL Automatic

4-Speed A43DE Automatic

Wheelbase: 102.9 in (2613.7 mm)

Length: 183.5 in (4660.9 mm)

Width: 67.7 in (1719.6 mm)

Height: 52.0 in (1320.8 mm)

Curb weight: ~3000 lb (1360.8 kg)

In 1982, Toyota completely redesigned the Celica Supra as well as the entire Celica line-up. In Japan they were known as Celica XX, but everywhere else the Celica Supra name stuck. Still being based around the Celica platform, there were several key differences, most notably the design of the front end and fully retractable pop-up headlights. Other differences would be the inline-6 still present in the Supra instead of the inline-4 as well as an increase in length and wheel base to conform with the overall larger engine.

L-Type and P-Type

In the North American market the Supra was available in two distinct models to accommodate any persons tastes. There was of course the Performance Type (P-Type henceforth) and the Luxury Type (L-Type henceforth). While being identical mechanically they were differentiated by the available options, tire and wheel sizes, and body trim. The P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-Type did not. The P-type was also standard with more sporty 8-way adjustable seats. The P-Type did not get the option of leather interior until 1983. All years of P-Type had the same 14x7 aluminum alloy rims and throughout the years the L-Type had 14"x5.5" rims until 1985 when they were changed to a P-Type style 15x6. The L-Type also had an option of a digital dash with trip computer, whereas the P-Type was only offered with an analog dash (with digital clock). The digital dash featured a digital tachometer, digital speedometer, and electronic fuel level and coolant level guages. The trip computer could calculate and display various things such as fuel economy in miles-per-gallon, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and distance remaining to destination. Excluding the 1982 year all P-Types were available with headlight washers as an option, the L-Types never saw that option. Although gear ratios changed throughout the years all P-Types were standard with a Limited Slip Differential.

1982

In the North American market, the Celica Supra's engine was the 2.8 L (2759 cc) 12-valve (2 valves per cylinder) DOHC 5M-GE. Power output was 145 hp (108 kW) and 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) of torque. The engine utilized an 8.8:1 compression ratio to achieve

the power and featured a vacuum advanced distributor. The standard transmission for this year was the W58 5-speed manual with the A43DL 4-speed automatic transmission being an option for L-Type's. Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear and locking torque converter. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph. This year's rear differential featured a 3.72:1 ratio. The Celica Supra's 4-wheel independent suspension was specially tuned and designed by Lotus and featured variable assisted power rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. As for the rear, it had semi-trailing arm suspension with coil springs and a stabilizer bar. Braking on the Celica Supra was handled by 4-wheel disc brakes.

On the inside this generation had standard power windows, power door locks, and power mirrors as well as a tilt steering wheel. The power door lock was located in the center console next to the power mirror control. The analog dash of this year only went to 85 mph in North America. The optional Automatic Climate Control on the MK I was renovated and is now seen as a standard feature on the MK II. Cruise control was standard in this generation. Toyota also included the retractable maplight as standard, just like with MKI Supras. Some options included addition of a sunroof, two-tone paint scheme, and 5-speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner with cassette. The optional cassette stereo featured a 105-watt power amplifier and a 7-channel graphic equalizer to control tone. The standard stereo was a 5-channel AM/FM/MPX tuner. Leather was an option on L-Types this year, but P-Types were stuck with standard striped cloth.

As far as the outside goes there was no external antenna it was simply located in the front windshield. There was a key lock on the gas tank door and the hatch and bumper were black no matter what color the rest of the car was. The P-Types were available with an optional rear sunshade above the hatch glass. The lights in the rear featured a reverse light in the center and the door handles opened the doors by pulling sideways. The front nose badge and B-pillar only read "SUPRA". Although it is believed mudflaps weren't introduced on this generation until 1983, all L-Types had front and rear mudflaps.

1983

For 1983 not much changed, albeit there was an increase in power output to: 150 hp (112 kW) and 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) of torque from the same 5M-GE. The only real change in the engine area was the switch to an electronic advanced distributor, and that didn't change the power. Toyota switched to a 4.10:1 rear gear ratio, which was standard on all 5-speed models. As for the optional automatic transmission they switched out the A43DL 4-speed for a newly designed A43DE 4-speed. It featured an electronically controller that would adjust its shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy. It was the first in the industry to provide this Electronically Controlled Transmission (ECT). The ECT allowed the driver to choose either the "Power" driving mode or "Normal" driving mode at the touch of the button. The "Power" mode provided the quickest acceleration and the "Normal" mode provided the best all-around performance.

On the inside of the car there were virtually no changes, but on the outside they decided to switch to a power antenna and it was the first year both the P-Type and L-Type had standard mudflaps. The B-pillar and nose badge were changed to say "Celica Supra" now and only L-Types were available in two-tone color schemes.

Difference between turn signals

1984

In 1984, Toyota changed quite a bit on the Supra. Power output was increased on the 5-speed models with a bump up to 160 hp (119 kW) and 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) of torque. The increase was achieved by a mixture of a redesigned intake manifold with "D"-shaped intake runners and an increase in compression ratio to: 9.2:1. Another notable change in the 5-speeds was the switch to a 4.30:1 gear ratio in the rear differential. Sadly, all automatic Supra's retained the previous years power numbers, but the rear gear ratio was changed to a 4.10:1.

The most notable exterior change was the switch to wraparound front turn signals. Also on the outside the tail-lights were redesigned and the hatch received a billboard "SUPRA" sticker instead of the smaller previous right positioned sticker. The rear hatch and bumper was changed and received the same color as the rest of the car (instead of the black of previous years). The door handles were also switched around, they now open from by pulling up instead of sideways. This year Toyota also decided to offer two-tone paint schemes on both the P-Type and L-Type.

the new Billboard sticker on hatch

Some interior controls such as the steering wheel, cruise control, and door lock switch were redesigned. Toyota encompassed a 130 mph speedometer instead of the traditional 85 mph one and the automatic climate control display was also changed. The previous year's cassette/equalizer stereo option was now a standard feature.

1985-1986

1985 saw a few changes just like other years and on the engine side power output was increased to 161 hp (120 kW) and 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) of torque. The good news was that all Supras this year had that much power (both automatics and 5-speeds). The engine received a redesigned throttle position sensor (TPS) as well as a new EGR system and knock sensor.

Other changes would be the redesigned, now more "integrated" sunshade and spoiler on the rear hatch. The rear spoiler was changed from a one piece to a two piece spoiler. Oddly the L-Types this year were not available with a leather interior, but P-Types were. Toyota added a standard factory theft deterrent system and the outside mirrors were equipped with a defogger that activated with the rear defroster. All Supras this year received automatic-off lights that also encompased an automatic illuminated entry and fade-out system.

While 1985 was to be the last year of the second generation model, delays in production of the third generation model led to leftover second generation Supras. During the first half of 1986 the 1985 MK II P-Type was still offered for sale, with only minor cosmetic changes as well as the addition of a now mandatory rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. These were all labeled officially as 1986 models. P-Types were the only model available in 1986.

MK II's around the world

The second generation Supra came in a variety of options around the world as well as only being offered during select years.

Most of Europe

Sold from 1982-1986.

82-83: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 174 hp (130 kW) and 207 ft·lbf (287 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.

84-86: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Great Britain

Sold from 1982-1986.

82-83: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.

84-86: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Australia, Sweden, & Switzerland

Sold from 1984-1986.

2.8 L (2759 cc) SOHC 5M-E 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque.

New Zealand

Sold from 1984-1985

2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Japan

Further information: Toyota Celica XX

Quick Info

Mark II Quick information by Chassis code Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market

MA61 1982-1983 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 174 hp (130 kW) 207 ft·lbf (287 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DL Automatic (1982)

4-Speed A43DE Automatic (1983) EUR GBR

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 ft·lbf (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual JPN

1984-1986 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DE Automatic AUS CHE SWE

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 178 hp (133 kW) 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) EUR GBR NZL

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 ft·lbf (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual JPN

MA63 1982 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 ft·lbf (211 N·m) 4-Speed A43DL Automatic JPN

1983-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TE turbo I6 160 hp (119 kW) 170 ft·lbf (230 N·m) 4-Speed A43DE Automatic

MA67 1982 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 145 hp (108 kW) 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DL Automatic CAN USA

1983 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DE Automatic

1984 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 160 hp (119 kW) 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) 4-Speed A43DE Automatic

1985-1986 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 161 hp (120 kW) 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DE Automatic

GA61 1982-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6 125 hp (93 kW) 127 ft·lbf (172 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

4-Speed A43DL Automatic JPN

1982-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 134 ft·lbf (181 N·m) 5-speed W58 Manual

Toyota Supra Mark III (1986.5-1992)

Mark III

Also called: MK III

Production: 1986.5-1992

Platform: MA7x GA7x JZA7x

Engine: 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GE I6

2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GTE I6

2.5 L (2491 cc) 1JZ-GTE I6

3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GE I6

3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GTE I6

Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual

5-speed R154 Manual

4-Speed A340E Automatic

Wheelbase: 102.2 in (2595.9 mm)

Length: 182.3 in (4630.4 mm)

Width: 68.7 in (1744.9 mm)

Height: 51.2 in (1300.5 mm)

Curb weight: ~3500 lb (1587.6 kg)

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The official model year is designated as 1986 1/2. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions*: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE), which was not available until the 1987 model, and one without (the 7M-GE). Both engines were fitted with 4 valves per cylinder. The turbocharged engine, or 7M-GTE, was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the U.S. and was rated at 230 hp while the normally aspirated engine was rated at 200 hp. The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional 4-speed automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. A change in the blow-off valve (supposedly along with wastegate and other minor changes) netted another 2 hp on the turbo model. For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels and an optional "white-out" package. Both models wore 16x7 aluminium alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tires and full-sized spares on steel wheels.

In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, all featured leather interiors, a front intercooler inlet, were hardtops and only used MAP engine sensors. Other enhancements include higher boost (7.8psi), long lift cams, larger injectors, larger intercooler and a high flowed version of the CT26 turbocharger.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5 L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE, known as 2.5GT Twin Turbo R (JZA70), and with a 2.0 L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with 4-channel ABS and TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension) which gave the driver 2 settings which affected the damper rates. By 1990, airbags became standard. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspensions front and rear. Targa tops were offered alongside power sliding sunroofs on the options list.

The 7M-GTE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 mph in just over 6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. It reached the 1/4 mile in 15.1 seconds and a trap speed of 93 mph.

Some possible chassis codes are: A70, MA70, JZA70, GA70.

Toyota Supra Mark IV (1993-1998/2002)

Mark IV

Also called: MK IV

Production: 1993-1998/2002

Platform: JZA8x

Engine: 3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GE I6

3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GTE I6

Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual

6-speed V16x Manual

4-Speed A341E Automatic

Wheelbase: 100.4 in (2550.2 mm)

Length: 177.7 in (4513.6 mm)

Width: 71.3 in (1811.0 mm)

Height: 50.2 in (1275.1 mm)

Curb weight: ~3400 lb (1542.2 kg)

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sports car. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220 hp (164 kW) and 210 ft·lbf (285 N·m) of torque and a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320 hp (239 kW), 315 ft·lbf (427 N·m) of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 mph in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in just under 13.1 seconds at over 109 mph (175 km/h). The stock turbos are capable of running around 450-500 bhp with an unrestricted airflow/exhaust system and an aftermarket boost controller (BPU Upgrade).

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of the more common parallel mode. The sequential setup featured a pair of small equal sized turbos, with ceramic blades for domestic Japanese market and steel blades for export (USA, UK) markets. At first, all exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This results in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm. Approaching 4000 rpm, exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. Approaching 4500 rpm, the second turbo's output is added to the intake air, and both turbos operate in parallel. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. The sequential mode is superior due to its increased low-end response and greater high rpm output.

For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models while the normally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual. Both models were offered with a 4-speed automatic with a manumatic mode. The turbo model used 4-piston brake calipers on the front and 2-piston calipers for the rear. The base model used 2-piston calipers for the front and single piston caliper for the rear. The turbo models were fitted with 235/45/17 tires on the front and 255/40/17 tires for the rear. The base model used 225/50/16 for the front and 245/50/16 for the rears. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminium alloy wheels and a "donut" spare tire on a steel wheel.

Toyota took measures to lose weight compared to the previous model. The Supra featured hollow carpet fibers. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (if so equipped), front crossmember, oil pan, and upper A-arms. Other measures included dished out head bolts, magnesium steering wheel, plastic gas cover, gas injected rear spoiler, and a large single exhaust tip. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, larger wheels, and larger tires, the car was at least 100 lb lighter than it's predecessor.

For the 1996 model year, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. The targa roof was made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, the manual transmission is back for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges that said, "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary." For 1998, the radio and steering wheel were redesigned once again. The normally aspirated engine was enhanced with VVTI which raised the output by 5 hp and 10 ft·lbf of torque. The turbo model was not available in California, New York, and Massachusetts due to increased emission regulations.

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi (206 kPa) of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1500rwhp (1120 kW) and run the 1/4 mile (402 m) in 7.9 seconds. The stock engines are astonishingly tough, running 900 bhp+ (670 kW) as daily drivers without having to update any internal components.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to import the cars to the U.S. from Japan, although the car was last sold in Canada in 1995. They stopped production of the car altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales.

Toyota Supra Mark V

This article or section contains information about a scheduled or anticipated future automobile.

It is likely to contain information of a speculative nature, but is usually sourced from the automotive news media, automaker media press releases, or other news sources. The content and specifications for upcoming vehicles may change significantly as the vehicle nears production and more information becomes available. Upcoming automobiles are also subject to delays or even cancellation by the automaker.

Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Lexus IS, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while others speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.

In early 2006, Toyota released a few possible concepts for the new Supra. (Concept can be seen at:http://www.danrharris.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/2008suprasmall.jpg) This new Supra is rumored to have a convertible and coupe version, with 2 engine models (5.0 L V8 with 450 hp (336 kW) and 383 ft·lbf (519 N·m); 3.5 L V6 with 350 hp (261 kW) and 275 ft·lbf (373 N·m)). The estimated weight of the future Toyota supercar is 1400 kg(3080 lb) and the platform is based off Toyota's latest efforts in F1 racing. They are rumored to be priced at around 50,000 US$ for the V8 and 40,000 US$ for the V6. Although according to a recent Japanese magazine (where the picture came from) it says that it will cost 30 million yen which translates to about $25,000 US.

However, all of the above is only speculation, as on Toyota's own website (under Planet Kaizen) there are two instances that insist there will not be another "Toyota Supra" anytime soon, and that if they do have another performance flagship, chances are it wont be under the "Toyota" name and even more so that they will not be under the "Supra" name.

http://www.tamparacing.com/photopost/data/500/THEREWILLBENOMORESUPRA.jpg

Such flagship is more than likely the LF-A concept car, as seen on Lexus' official website both in English and the Japanese website. One need not know Japanese to see the English important parts: F1 inspired 500PS (which is roughly 493 hp) http://www.tamparacing.com/photopost/data/500/JDM_LF-A.jpg

Awards

The MKII, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

US Timeline

1979 - Celica Supra MK I introduced with 2.6 L (2563 cc) SOHC 4M-E I6 engine.

1981 - MK I engine displacement upped to 2.8 L (2759 cc) with SOHC 5M-E I6 engine.

1982 - MK II Celica Supra introduced with a 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE I6 engine.

1986 - 1986.5 MK III Supra introduced on its own platform with 3.0 L (2954 cc) DOHC 7M-GE I6 engine.

1987 - Option of turbocharger to 3.0 L (2954 cc) DOHC 7M-GTE engine that produces 230 hp (172 kW) 245 ft·lbf (332 N·m).

1989 - Restyled. Turbo power increase to 234 hp (174 kW) 250 ft·lbf (339 N·m).

1993 - 1993.5 MK IV Supra introduced with 3.0 L (2997 cc) turbo (2JZ-GTE) or non-turbo (2JZ-GE) DOHC engine.

1996 - Turbo only available with Automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. Targa roof standard on all Turbo models.

1997 - Manual transmission available on turbo models. Restyled. All 1997 labeled as 15th Anniversary model.

1998 - Slight restyling of interior. VVT-i on non-turbo models which increased power. Turbos not available in states that require California emissions.

1999 - Export of MK IV Toyota Supra to the United States halts, production continues in Japan.

2002 - Production of MK IV Toyota Supra halts.

References

1980 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure (PDF). URL accessed 2006-04-13.

1981 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure (PDF). URL accessed 2006-04-13.